Field of Science

The Largest Crystals Ever Discovered Are At Risk Of Decay

The mine of Naica, in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, was opened in 1828 to mine for lead, zinc and silver ore. In 1910, a natural cave in the mine was discovered, which was later named Cueva de las Espadas, the Cave of Swords. The name derives from three-feet large, blade-like gypsum crystals (calcium-sulfate) completely covering the walls of the cave.
However, what the miners discovered almost 90 years later during the construction of a new tunnel was even more astounding. The Cueva de los Cristales, the Cave of the Crystals, hosts the most incredible crystals ever discovered. The mining operations, making the discovery possible, are also threatening this geological treasure.


110 Years After The Tunguska Event We Still Aren't Sure What Caused It

At 7:15 on the morning of June 30, 1908, something happened in the sky above the Stony Tunguska (Podkamennaya Tunguska) river in Siberia. Many thousand people in a radius of 900 miles observed the Tunguska event and more than 700 accounts were collected later. The reports describe a fireball in the sky, larger or similar to the size of the sun, a series of explosions “with a frightful sound”, followed by shaking of the ground as “the earth seemed to get opened wide and everything would fall in the abyss. Terrible strokes were heard from somewhere, which shook the air [].” The indigenous Evenks and Yakuts believed a god or shaman had sent the fireball to destroy the world. Various meteorological stations in Europe recorded both seismic and atmospheric waves. Days later strange phenomena were observed in the sky of Russia and Europe, such as glowing clouds, colorful sunsets and a strange luminescence in the night.

A devastating explosion occurred in a remote swampy area of Siberia in June 1908 that even now continues to spark controversy and theories of widely varying plausibility.

Hawaii's Kilauea Eruption Did Not Rain Gemstones From The Sky

Since the beginning of May 2018, the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii has been erupting. First a cloud of fragmented older lava, volcanic ash and vapor rose from the Pu‘u ‘O‘o crater on the summit, magma then migrated to the flanks, opening a series of fissures from where now lava is pouring out.

Around five weeks into the eruption, some residents of the town of Kalapana reported small, green crystals to be found on the ground, soon speculating that the crystals rained out from the eruption column or the lava fountains of Kilauea.


Olivine sand from the Papakolea Beach on Hawai'i. Source and Credit: Wikipedia-user Tomintx, CC BY-SA 4.0.

Nazi Geologists Of The Reich


In April 1941 ReichsfĂŒhrer Heinrich Himmler established the 'SS-Wehrgeologen Battalion 500', the Schutz-Staffel unit of military geologists. Members were recruited from other SS units, including the 'Ahnenerbe", a unit dedicated in part to pseudo-scientific tasks, but also real exploration, including caves. The unit included mostly academics, like captain Erich Marquardt, archaeologist, captain Karl Heinzelmann, geologist, who had worked on tectonics and Joachim Schlorf, who studied the toxic effects of Vanadium-minerals on animals. The unit was commanded by Rolf Hohne, archaeologist, and geologist.
 
The official tasks of the Wehrgeologenkorps included all aspects of military geology: exploration for water, oil, gas and other valuable resources during field campaigns, surveys for construction and fortification, and support during construction work in underground mines and galleries. One project included mapping the route for a planned Autobahn (highway) between Berlin and the Krim-peninsula (never realized). However, more esoteric tasks also included archaeological digs to prove the superiority of the Arian race.

In France and the Netherlands, the geologists studied the best location to build the launch pads for the secret rocket project of the Reich. The ground had to be stable enough to adsorb the vibrations caused by the launch of the Vergeltungswaffe, the V-1 and V-2.


In 1943-1945, when the impending defeat of the Third Reich became obvious, the SS geologists were sent to southern France and Italy, to work on the Blue Line. Blu line was a system of fortifications, to be built in the Prealps, to stop the allies, invading at the time Sicily during 'Operation Husky.' An even more ambitious plan included the idea to use the mountains as the  Alpenfestung, the Alps-fortress, as a last refugium for the Nazis. At this time the unit comprised more than 600 men, including geologists and soldiers. In the Italian city of Trieste, the Wehrgeologen helped in the construction of 'Small Berlin', a system of underground bunkers. During this operation, the geologists explored also caves and ancient mines, in part for minerals and resources, but also searching for the mythical entrance to a supposed ancient underground reign. Supposedly, strange galleries of unknown origin were discovered. At least some members also studied supposed earth-force-fields. Wilhelm Teudt and Josef Heinsch, both researchers at the Ahnenerbe, believed that streams of energy, following Ley-Lines, crossed beneath the city of Trieste.

Today, Nazi geologists searching the entrance to the Hollow Earth sounds like the plot for a bad movie. This should not hide the cruel reality of the war and the regime. The SS Wehrgeologen were also involved in war crimes. In the village of Laita various
civilians were executed by the bataillon 500. The villages of Pedescala and SettecĂ , in the province of Trentino, were both burned to the ground and 83 civilians killed. This happened during the withdraw of the German troops in the last days of World War II, an involvement of the SS geologists seems also possible in this case.

Nikola Tesla's Earthquake Machine

Engineer Nikola Tesla is today famous for his work on electricity and energy. The alternating current electrical system, on which our modern civilization runs, is mostly his invention.  He was a brilliant thinker, but also with very eccentric ideas, including a belief in aliens. Maybe the more enigmatic parts of his personality make him such an interesting subject for conspiracists. Tesla is credited to have worked on unknown energy-sources, UFOs, caused the Tunguska explosion by a death-ray, and even worked on an earthquake-generator. 
In 1896 Tesla was working on waves and resonance to be used for energy transfer. The idea was to create a mechanical oscillator, able to create various frequencies, until matching the resonance frequency of the desired object. In 1897 the device was ready and in 1898 he supposedly managed to oscillate his laboratory at 48 E. Houston St., New York, enough, that alarmed neighbors called the police and ambulance, fearing an earthquake happening. Tesla later explained this principle to reporter Allan L. Besnson, who published in February 1912 an article about Tesla's resonator in The World Today magazine:

'He put his little vibrator in his coat-pocket and went out to hunt a half-erected steel building. Down in the Wall Street district, he found one, ten stories of steel framework without a brick or a stone laid around it. He clamped the vibrator to one of the beams, and fussed with the adjustment until he got it.

Tesla said finally the structure began to creak and weave and the steel-workers came to the ground panic-stricken, believing that there had been an earthquake. Police was called out. Tesla put the vibrator in his pocket and went away. Ten minutes more and he could have laid the building in the street. And, with the same vibrator, he could have dropped the Brooklyn Bridge into the East River in less than an hour.'

Tesla's steam-powered electric generator or oscillator. The device was intended to produce electric energy but could be also modified to generate mechanical vibrations.

Tesla imagined using the waves generated by his device for more peaceful applications, like to transport energy inside Earth. One device would transform electricity into vibrations and send it into Earth, another device would pick up the vibrations and transform the waves back into electricity, to be used locally. In fact, so Tesla, the device, consisting of a piston vibrating in a cylinder, was already powerful enough to vibrate an entire building. Just one precaution was necessary, if powerful enough, so Tesla, his machine could make resonate earth, causing even earthquakes. However, the 'telegeodynamics' system never managed to get beyond the prototype, even if Tesla got a patent on his design. Still, in the 1930s, Tesla imagined using smaller devices to relieve stress from Earth, so to prevent earthquakes, or use the vibrations to prospect the underground. Modern seismology, in fact, uses vibrations, generated by controlled explosions or mechanical pistons, as sort of underground echo sounding, to prospect. However, nobody still to this date possesses an earthquake machine...